Sociodemographic services provided racial thinking-category (white or non-light elizabeth.grams. black colored, brownish, red-colored, or local), host to home (metropolitan otherwise rural), education (0–4, 5–8, 9–eleven, or ? 12 many years), and you can monthly household income each capita when you look at the tertiles (lowest, middle, or higher). The latest urban–rural category are in line with the strategies used by the fresh Brazilian Institute out of Geography and Analytics (during the Portuguese, IBGE) from inside the 2010 inhabitants census regarding management restrictions establish because of the local statutes. Inside for each municipality’s borders, this type of regional rules expose an imaginary line named “urban fringe”. The new census tracts discover from inside the “metropolitan fringe” was termed urban, whereas the residual portion is designated rural. Another guidance try obtained because of a facial-to-deal with interviews from the participant’s domestic.
Height was measured in centimeters (cm) using a portable vertical stadiometer (NutriVida®, Brazil) with the participants barefoot with legs and feet parallel, weight distributed on both feet, arms relaxed at the sides, palms facing the body, and head in the Frankfurt horizontal plane. Weight was measured in kilograms (kg) using a portable digital scale (SECA®, Germany) with participants barefoot. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as the ratio between weight in kilograms (kg) and height in square meters (m 2 ). BMI cutoff points were based on the World Health Organization recommendation: underweight ( 94 cm in men and > 80 cm in women were considered “increased” since they are associated with a higher risk of metabolic complications . All anthropometric variables were measured twice during the home visit by trained interviewers and the mean of the measurements was used in the analyses. Further information can be seen in the handbook on the survey homepage (
Additionally, we provided information on the most prevalent chronic diseases diagnosed by a physician in our sample. Secondly, fractional polynomial regression models were fitted to estimate the percentiles (P5, P10, P20, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95) of HGS by age group and sex. This method provides smooth centile curves and explicit formulae for the percentile estimates. Diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the model fit (normal plot of the Z-scores, Shapiro–Wilk test, and residuals plot). The model was fitted by maximum likelihood, which accounts for non-normal skewness and/or kurtosis in the data . Thirdly, HGS centile curves for men and women were plotted in charts. Finally, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models separate for men and women were created to investigate the sociodemographic and anthropometric variables associated with muscle weakness, being estimated the odds ratio (OR) with 95%CI. Variables with p
Figure 1 describes the flow chart of the participants throughout the study. Our analytical sample was composed of 7905 participants aged 50–101 years (63.1 ± 9.1 years): 3162 men (63.2 ± 8.7 years) and 4743 women (63.1 ± 9.4 years). The excluding participants were similar to including participants regarding sex (p = 0.092), schooling (p = 0.813), and monthly household income per capita (p = 0.189) but tended to be older (? 80 years: 11.8% vs. sД±cak Д°sveГ§ kadД±nlar 6.5%, respectively, p < 0.001).
The characteristics of one’s analysis players by the sex is visible from inside the Table 1. In both sexes, very members were low-light, stayed in the area, had 0–cuatro years of education, and you will displayed increased hips width. Concerning Body mass index, fat are the most typical classification for men (42.9%), while you are overweight and being obese got nearly comparable frequencies for women (thirty six.9% and you can 35.4%, respectively). Regarding chronic disorder, forty two.1% from professionals stated that have a health diagnosis out-of arterial blood pressure levels, 17.4% away from diabetes mellitus, 11.5% from osteoporosis, seven.4% of cardiovascular system disease (angina, myocardial infarction, and center failure), and you will 5.7% off breathing problems (symptoms of asthma and you can persistent obstructive pulmonary condition).